Personnel is a collection of activities within all organizations with the aim of affecting the effectiveness of human and organizational resources.
Personnel activities used to support the achievement of corporate objectives include:
A. Human resource Planning
The purpose of human resource planning is to create a relationship between all the plans made by the company with the human resource conditions available, thus the human resource activities will always be consistent with the objectives of the company.
In building human resource planning, management needs to make environmental analysis and organizational assessment. Environmental analysis aims to ensure that management can anticipate changes that may be happening in the future.
Environments that may affect labor availability may be described as follows:
A. Economic environment
This environment can affect the company’s financial status which will be able to affect the spending rate, risk and priority spend.
B. Social environment
In this case, customs, culture or trend can affect the organization. Managers need to understand the social environment in which the company operates, because this will affect the relationship between workers and management.
C. Political environment
This environment concerns government attitudes towards corporations, labor regulations and social welfare.
D. Legal environment
Advances in the field of law provide protection for the workforce to achieve their rights and obligations proportionally.
E. Worker Environment
This environment illustrates the attitude of employees with other employees.
F. Technological environment
Here, the technology affects the skills of the workers needed as well as the work tools used in completing a job.
The function of personnel managers is 2:
1. Management functions
A. Planning (planning)
B. organizing (organizing)
C. Briefing (directing)
D. Control (Controling)
2. Operational functions
A. Procurement of manpower (procurement)
B. Development (development)
E. Maintenance (Maintenance)
F. Termination of employment (separation)
The explanations of the management functions are:
1. Planning (Planning)
Planning means the determination of personnel programs that will help the achievement of goals that have been drafted for the company.
2. organizing (organizing)
The organization is a tool to achieve its objectives, personnel managers develop an organization by designing the structure of relationships between work, personnel, and physical factors. If a set of actions has been specified, the organization must be drafted to implement it.
3. Direction (directing)
A simple function of redirection is to make employees do what they want, and should they do (giving orders)
4. Control (controlling)
Control is a managerial function that relates to the arrangement of activities to fit the human resources plan that was previously formulated based on the analysis of the basic objectives of the Organization
Meanwhile, explanations of operational functions are:
1. Procurement of Manpower
The things done in this connection are the determination of human resources needed, recruitment, selection, and placement. Determination of the necessary human resources should rely on the tasks listed on the draft of the previously specified work
2. Development (development)
Development is an improved skill through the necessary training for proper job accomplishment. This is important because technological changes, job reorganization, management tasks are increasingly complicated.
3. Compensation (Compensation)
This function is formulated in response to adequate and appropriate services to the personnel for their donation to the organization’s objectives
4. Integration (integration)
Integration is an effort to produce a worthy fit for the interests of individuals, communities, and organisations.
5. Maintenance (Maintenance)
Maintenance is an attempt to perpetuate the workforce that has a will and is able to work. Maintaining the willingness to work is strongly influenced by communication with employees, physical condition of employees, and occupational health and safety.
6. Termination of Employment (separation)
The last function of personnel management is to break the work relationship and return the people to the community. The organization is responsible for implementing the termination of employment in accordance with the requirements and ensuring that the citizens returned are in the best possible circumstances.
B. Job Analysis and Design
Job analysis is the determination through observation and information relating to the nature of a particular work.
The objectives of the job analysis are:
1. Identify activities to be undertaken
2. Evaluating work-related workplace
3. Determine the employment conditions for the employee
4. Identifying information about operational procedures
5. Explain the boundaries of authority and responsibility
The benefits of job analysis are:
• Simplify employee preparation (stafor)
• Provide feedback in the creation of effective organizational design
• Provide basic employee performance planning and evaluation
• Being the foundation of Management Succession planning
• Assisting management in determining the need for a training program for employees
• Provide a basis for employee selection and promotion
• Assisting management in evaluating work for compensation purposes
Labor Quality Determination Activities:
It is a written description of what an employee should do in his or her work.
Benefits of Job Descriptions:
1. Help give a clear picture of the duties and responsibilities of the worker.
2. Facilitate the withdrawal procedure and training of labor.
3. Assisting the workforce in planning their careers.
A job description can contain:
• Job Name
• Work Summary
• Special tasks to be implemented
• Relationship between jobs
• The proficiency of employees and work tools and materials to be used
• Working conditions
• Responsibilities that employees must carry out.
Job specification (Job Spesification)
Is the division of work based on the skills of each workforce.
Job evaluation is an activity to compare a particular job with another work to ensure that the work is appreciated fairly.
Job design is the process of determining the tasks that will be implemented, the techniques to be used to carry out the tasks that work with other work in the company.
Job design techniques can affect the level of specialization and psychological dimension of work. In this case there are 4 (four) design works (Henry Simamora, 1995:119-120):
A. Occupational simplification (Job simplification)
B. Job rotation
C. Job Enlargement
D. Job Enrichment
Recruitment and Employment
Before the organization did a labor withdrawal, the initial step was to predict the need for labor in the short term.
Factors that need to be considered in determining the number of workforce there are 2 namely: the level of attendance and the Labor turnover. High attendance level indicates the height of employees who do not go to work. How to calculate it:
The company needs to conduct an employee turnover analysis to ensure adequate availability of manpower. This rotation is a guide for the stability of employees within the company. The higher the turnover, the more frequent the employee turnover. This will harm the company because, the company will be overwhelmed by the expenditure, such costs include:
-Employee withdrawal Fee
-Employee training costs
-Cost of production error
-Overtime cost due to new employees in work
Labor turnover percentage can be calculated as follows:
Percentage of labor turnover
Labor procurement includes:
A. Labor selection
The selection process starts from when applicants send a cover letter or come directly to the company and end at the time of the lifting decision.
Various types of tests include:
-Intelligence test (Intrlligence Test)
-Talent Test (Aptitude Test)
B. Orientation, training and development of Labor
Orientation is an activity to introduce manpower to organizations/companies regarding functions, tasks and Personil-personilnya.
Training and Development methods
1. Two basic methods of implementing employee development:
A. Exercise (training)
Exercise is an activity to improve the ability of an employee by increasing the knowledge and skills of employees in the running of a job.
B. Education (education)
Education is an activity to improve an employee’s ability by increasing knowledge and understanding of employees about general knowledge and economic knowledge in general, including improved mastery of theories and skills Decisions in dealing with corporate organizational issues.
2. Principles that are used as guidelines for training employees to exercise and development in order to run properly:
A. There is a clear encouragement/motivation for trainees, for example transfer or promotion preparation.
B. Progress report.
C. The absence of reward/praise (reinforcement).
D. An active participation of the trainees (active participation).
E. Exercise is given part by part in accordance with the principles of learning.
F. Exercise should remember the individual differences.
G. Participants training and trainers are selective (willing and able).
H. Strive for appropriate exercise methods.
Objectives of training and development
1. Upgrading employee skills with technological advancement.
2. Reduce learning time for new employees to be skilled in work.
3. Help solve operational problems.
4. Prepare employees for promotion.
5. Orient employees to the organization.
Various types of training and development methods
-On The Job Training
-Off The Job Training
C. Performance assessment
Employee performance is the level by which employees achieve job requirements. This performance assessment covers the qualitative and quantitative aspects of job execution.
Performance assessment system including:
-Employee comparison with employees
Compensation can be interpreted as all forms of financial return and benefits gained by the employee as part of a employment relationship. Objectives of compensation giving
1. Attracting employees to work
2. Withholding employees from switching jobs
3. Motivating work
E. Labor Maintenance
In this case the company needs to activate the integration function that is, all activities to understand the motives and the properties of employees as well as know their needs. So that there is alignment between the company and the individual.